Nigeria's importance to the world lies in its vast natural resources, its position as a regional power in Africa, and its potential for growth and development. Nigeria is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous nation on the African continent. Its history is rich and diverse, from pre-colonial times to its current state as an independent nation. Various indigenous tribes initially inhabited the country. Over time, different groups migrated and settled in Nigeria, including the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo people. Nigeria was colonized by the British in the late 19th century. It remained under colonial rule until 1960 when it gained independence—the period of colonial rule significantly impacted the country's development, as the British implemented policies that favoured their economic interests and disrupted the social and political structures of the Nigerian people. Following independence, Nigeria struggled to establish a stable and democratic government. The country was plagued by political instability, coups, and civil war, which led to a cycle of military dictatorship and civilian rule. In 1999, Nigeria returned to democratic governance with the election of Olusegun Obasanjo as president. Nigeria has vast natural resources, including oil and gas. Still, its political history has been marred by corruption, tribalism, and religious conflicts. These factors have contributed to the country's economic underdevelopment and slow progress towards social and political stability.
Currently, Nigeria is facing significant political and social challenges. The country's economy has been hit hard by falling oil prices, and corruption remains a pervasive issue. The current president of Nigeria is Muhammadu Buhari, re-elected in 2019 for a second term in office. Buhari is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and served as military ruler of Nigeria from 1983 to 1985. He won the 2019 presidential election defeating his primary challenger Atiku Abubakar of the People's Democratic Party (PDP). His campaign focused on his track record of fighting corruption and promoting security and his plans to improve the economy and create jobs. During his time in office, Buhari has implemented various policies to strengthen the economy, such as diversifying the country's revenue sources away from oil, investing in infrastructure, and promoting agricultural development.
However, Buhari's administration has faced criticism for handling social and political issues, particularly regarding human rights and press freedom. The government has been accused of clamping down on dissenting voices and failing to protect citizens from violent attacks by criminal groups. The government has been criticized for handling security issues, particularly in the country's northeastern part. The Boko Haram insurgency has caused widespread destruction and displacement of people. Additionally, there have been increasing tensions between various ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria, leading to violent conflicts in some areas. The government has responded to these challenges by implementing different policies promoting peace and development, but progress has needed to be faster. In recent years, the country has seen a surge in youth-led protests calling for an end to police brutality and corruption. The #EndSARS movement, which began in 2020, was a nationwide protest against the brutality of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), a unit of the Nigerian police force. The protests sparked a conversation about governance and accountability in Nigeria. They highlighted the frustrations of young Nigerians with the current political system.
On February 25, 2023, more than 93 million voters were called to elect the country's next president and their representatives in Parliament. At only three weeks from the elections, two major crises have impacted the vote considerably. The Central Bank of Nigeria introduced the redesigned notes and new limits on large cash withdrawals to help curb money laundering and make digital payments the norm. The push to replace the old banknotes with new ones has left minimal cash in circulation, causing frustration and anger for many people who spend hours at the banks attempting to withdraw their money and the possibility of theft for business-owner. On top of this, in the same days, an oil shortage also forced car owners to have extremely long queues to buy fuel.
After eight years in office, Muhammadu Buhari will be stepping down as president. Bola Tinubu from the ruling All Progressives Congress Party is the new president to replace him. Tinubu received 37% of the vote, or nearly 8.8 million while leading opposition candidate Abubakar won 29% with almost 7 million. Third-place finisher Obi took 25% with about 6.1 million, according to the results announced on live television by the Independent National Electoral Commission. During the votes counting, several party agents, including those from the main opposition PDP and Peter Obi's Labour Party, alleged over-voting and disparities between results announced from some states and what electoral officials uploaded on the election commission's result portal. Tinubu's ruling All Progressives Congress party urged the opposition to accept defeat and not cause trouble after they demanded a revote for irregularities. The president-elect thanked his supporters in the capital, Abuja, after his victory was announced and struck a reconciliatory tone in a message directed at his political adversaries. "I take this opportunity to appeal to my fellow contestants to let us team up together," Tinubu said. "It is the only nation we have. It is one country, and we must build together." The new government inherits a critical situation of long-term underfunded public services, widespread corruption, meagre salaries (a teacher earns about $65/month) and significant tax evasion. Hopefully, it will be the beginning of a new era for Nigeria.